If you have trouble downloading the file after paying with PayPal please write Aimee aimeenolte yahoo. Sometimes you just have to wait few minutes to download the file. Richard Carpenter took a masterful solo, rich with bebop language and harmonic and scalular devices. Hang out and analyze this solo with me and let's discuss the genius of this duo.
It was originally recorded in by Russell for his album Carney the same year. The song was not released as a single but was inserted on the B-side of Russell's hit single "Tight Rope". South Of The Border. Fear Inoculum. Cross You Out. This Masquerade meanings Best Recent 0 meanings View -5 more meanings. Write about your feelings and thoughts about This Masquerade Know what this song is about? Does it mean anything special hidden between the lines to you?
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The order Actinomycetales includes phylogenetically diverse but morphologically similar aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that exhibit filamentous branching structures which fragment into bacillary or coccoid forms. The aerobic actinomyces are a large, diverse group of gram-positive bacteria including Nocardia, Gordona, Tsukamurella, Streptomyces, Rhodococcus, Streptomycetes, Mycobacteria, and Corynebacteria. The anaerobic genera of medical importance include Actinomyces, Arachnia, Rothia, and Bifidobacterium.
Both Actinomyces and Nocardia cause similar clinical syndromes involving the lung, bone and joint, soft tissue, and the central nervous system. The medically important Actinomyces organisms cause infections characterized by chronic progression, abscess formation with fistulous tracts and draining sinuses. Once recognized, treatment of these infections requires long courses of parenteral and oral therapy.
This review will compare and contrast infections due to Actinomyces and Nocardia. Actinomycetes are a group of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the order Actinomycetales.
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These organisms are phylogenetically diverse but morphologically similar, exhibiting characteristic filamentous branching structures which then fragment into bacillary or coccoid forms 1 Figure 1. Aerobic actinomyces are a large, diverse group of gram-positive bacteria 2. Species associated with human and veterinary disease include Nocardia , Gordona , Tsukamurella , Streptomyces , Rhodococcus , Streptomycetes , and Corynebacteria. Anaerobic genera of medical importance include Actinomyces , Arachnia , Rothia , and Bifidobacterium. Both Actinomyce s and Nocardia cause similar clinical syndromes involving the lung, bone and joint, soft tissue, and the central nervous system.
The hallmark of both infections is abscess formation and chronic progression of infection without regard to anatomic barriers. Patients frequently present with fistulous tracts and draining sinuses. Likewise, treatment of these infections require long courses of parenteral and oral therapy e. Figure 1. Filamentous Actinomycetes. Anaerobic gram-positive Actinomyces species have a beaded appearance in this clinical specimen left panel , while the aerobic Nocardia species right panel stain acid fast in this sputum specimen.
The genus Actinomyces comprises a group of 42 species and 2 subspecies 3.
Classification of these organisms has traditionally relied on phenotypic testing: Actinomyces are indole negative, and species may be differentiated by colony morphology and biochemical characteristics. However, such phenotypic tests have resulted in misidentification 4 , and classification based on genotypic methods, including 16S ribosomal RNA rRNA and DNA probe analysis, has been useful in definitive identification 4 — 7. These methods have led to identification of new Actinomyces species and reclassification of some actinomycetes as Arcanobacterium or Actinobaculum species.
The most common cause of human disease among the Actinomyces species is A. Other less frequent agents of human infection include A. New species identified by molecular techniques have led to an increasing number of agents of actinomycosis, including A. The genus Nocardia are gram-positive organisms that are partially acid fast due to the mycolic acid content of the cell wall 2. Nocardia species are now classified using a range of genotypic and phenotypic data, and combinations of such characteristics have been used to describe many novel species 8 — 12 , more than 30 having been described in the last decade.
At least 89 species of Nocardia are officially recognized to date 3 , of which as many as 30 are considered to be of medical importance 2 , 3. Nocardiae are common in the environment worldwide, including various soil, freshwater, marine-water, and organic-matter habitats, where they are believed to maintain a saprophytic existence 2 , 13 , Nocardia species may also be present in domestic environments such as house dust, garden soil, beach sand, and swimming pools Rarely, they may be found as transient colonizers of the skin and upper respiratory tract However, isolation of Nocardia from patients should be carefully evaluated for the presence of disseminated disease, especially in immunocompromised hosts.
Nocardia species were originally classified on the basis of biochemical properties. However, classification has become more complex with the use of antibiotic susceptibility profiles, which have revealed marked heterogeneity 15 , and molecular techniques, such as analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and restriction fragment length polymorphisms 16 — Recently, strains of N. Most cases of infection have occurred in the context of human immunodeficiency virus—related or iatrogenic immune suppression.
Further, N. Molecular studies indicate that N. Actinomyces are part of the normal flora of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract and are generally low virulence. In contrast, Nocardia are saprophytic organisms with a worldwide distribution in soil. Human infections result from direct inoculation of the skin or soft tissue or by inhalation of contaminated soil. Isolation of any species of Nocardia from human specimens is significant. Actinomyces species are members of the endogenous flora of mucous membranes and are frequently cultured from the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, and female genital tract 7.
The organisms have never been cultured from nature, and no person-to-person spread has been documented 7. Actinomycosis has been documented in all age groups, with the highest incidence in mid-life and lower frequencies at each end of the age spectrum 7. Infections due to Actinomyces are usually associated with the breakdown of normal physical barriers, such as disruption of mucosal membranes in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract Certain conditions may predispose to infection, including erupting secondary teeth, dental extractions and caries, gingivitis, and gingival trauma Actinomycosis is not typically considered an opportunistic infection of immunocompromised hosts.
However, diagnosis of actinomycosis in children should alert the astute physician to consider an underlying immunodeficiency such as chronic granulomatous disease Virtually all infections are polymicrobial.
George Benson - "This Masquerade" - JAZZIZ Magazine
The infections are not common, occurring in , in the Netherlands and Germany in the s and , in the Cleveland area during the s Most series report males more frequently infected than females 43 — Incidence of actinomycosis has decreased with the advent of the antibiotic era and improved dental hygiene.
Indeed, adult men with poor oral hygiene seem to be at greatest risk, perhaps contributing to the greater ratio of infection in men. Nocardiosis is also an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection. Nocardia spp. Nocardiosis may be regarded as an opportunistic infection, with clusters of invasive disease documented in oncology and transplant units 1 , 52 — The majority of patients with nocardial infection are immunocompromised, most often with cell-mediated abnormalities 51 , The most common causes were glucocorticoid therapy, malignancy, organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and HIV infection.