Scott Pakin also asked me to note the difference between i. Sorting your references : If at all possible, arrange your reference list in alphabetical order by author's last name. Going in cited order is much less useful to readers of your paper.
- Titles of Books, Plays, Articles, etc.: Underline? Italics? Quotation Marks?.
- Titles of Books, Plays, Articles, etc.: Underline? Italics? Quotation Marks?;
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The only reason I've heard that cited-order is useful is in a survey article where nearby and presumably related citations from the paper are next to each other in the bibliography. I don't find this argument particularly compelling. Always alphabetize grouped citations so they appear in numerical order instead of [8, 6, 10], arrange the citations so it looks like [6, 8, 10]. For some reason the First Society of Computing has zero interest in making their capitalization correct.
Do You Make These 7 Mistakes When You Write?
I often review papers where citations have been taken directly from ACM with bizarre capitalization particularly in the booktitle. Fix these before you submit a paper.
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Undefined control sequence. This guarantees your title will always be capitalized. But many bib styles downcase all titles, in which case your title will stick out like a sore thumb. Instead, just put your title in single-braces or quotes and let the bib style do the right thing. What is the right thing? In the US, publishers capitalize most words in titles [title case]; in the UK, publishers use the same capitalization rules as normal sentences [sentence case].
Typesetting words in equations : Thanks to Matt Pharr. When writing equations, LaTeX assumes that a series of letters without spaces represents a set of distinct variables and typesets them accordingly: with an extra bit of space between each of them, in order to emphasize that they are distinct entities. They are in roman type if they are descriptive.
It looks particularly bad if you don't do this properly and the word has 'f' characters in it, since LaTeX leaves extra room around them because of the fancy 'f' character it uses in math mode. There is a space between the measurement and the unit. That space should be nonbreaking. The unit is not italicized. Don't say 10 kb.
To be strictly accurate, do consult the wikipedia article on binary prefixes for binary multiples. Angle brackets : Thanks to Sanjay Rajopadhye! Just read this. If you can't, don't put it in. Other rules on apostrophes in graphical form, or check Oatmeal's guide ; the esteemed Apostrophe Protection Society dedicates itself to proper usage of this oft-misunderstood punctuation mark. Happy to see some efforts toward checking these things automatically! Examples our own. When both a city's name and that city's state or country's name are mentioned together, the state or country's name is treated as a parenthetical element.
Also, when the state or country's name becomes part of a compound structure, the second comma is dropped:. An absolute phrase is always treated as a parenthetical element, as is an interjection. An addressed person's name is also always parenthetical. Be sure, however, that the name is that of someone actually being spoken to. A separate section on Vocatives , the various forms that a parenthetical element related to an addressed person's name can take, is also available. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives.
You could think of this as "That tall, distinguished, good looking fellow" rule as opposed to "the little old lady". If you can put an and or a but between the adjectives, a comma will probably belong there. For instance, you could say, "He is a tall and distinguished fellow" or "I live in a very old and run-down house. Use a comma to set off quoted elements. Because we don't use quoted material all the time, even when writing, this is probably the most difficult rule to remember in comma usage. It is a good idea to find a page from an article that uses several quotations, photocopy that page, and keep it in front of you as a model when you're writing.
Generally, use a comma to separate quoted material from the rest of the sentence that explains or introduces the quotation:. If an attribution of a quoted element comes in the middle of the quotation, two commas will be required. But be careful not to create a comma splice in so doing. Be careful not to use commas to set off quoted elements introduced by the word that or quoted elements that are embedded in a larger structure:.
And, instead of a comma, use a colon to set off explanatory or introductory language from a quoted element that is either very formal or long especially if it's longer than one sentence :. Some writers will leave out the comma that sets off a contrasting phrase beginning with but. Use a comma to avoid confusion.
This is often a matter of consistently applying rule 3. Outside the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches. Outside , the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches. I have spent most of the day putting in a comma and the rest of the day taking it out. Grammar English's Famous Rule of Punctuation: Never use only one comma between a subject and its verb. Note that we use a comma or a set of commas to make the year parenthetical when the date of the month is included:.
In international or military format, no commas are used: The Declaration of Independence was signed on 4 July Use Commas With Caution As you can see, there are many reasons for using commas, and we haven't listed them all. Yet the biggest problem that most students have with commas is their overuse. Some essays look as though the student loaded a shotgun with commas and blasted away. Remember, too, that a pause in reading is not always a reliable reason to use a comma.
Try not to use a comma unless you can apply a specific rule from this page to do so. Concentrating on the proper use of commas is not mere form for form's sake. Indeed, it causes writers to review their understanding of structure and to consider carefully how their sentences are crafted. The following quizzes will test your understanding of other punctuation marks as well as the comma, and it might be a good idea for you to review those marks before taking them. Click HERE to do so.
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Not recommended for 28 or 56k phone-line connections. If your computer is equipped with PowerPoint, click on the PowerPoint icon to the right for a brief PowerPoint presentation on comma usage. For additional information on coordinating conjunctions, click HERE. See the note BELOW regarding the use of a comma between two independent clauses when the second independent clause begins with a parenthetical element or adverbial clause. As pointed out above Rule 3 , an adverbial clause that begins a sentence is set off with a comma: Although Queasybreath had spent several years in Antarctica, he still bundled up warmly in the brisk autumns of Ohio.